- Soft refusals – when participants show a slightly negative response due to lack of time etc.
- When participants reap great benefits and are reluctant to participate due to lack of knowledge about the research
- When participants do not give any negative response to the research, a follow-up can be done
- Some cases of clinical research
In all the above cases no personal gain is expected. Also, forms of persuasion like coercion and manipulation are not allowed. Some forms of persuasion like coercion are never considered ethical.
There should be no persuasion in case of vulnerable populations especially minor children, mentally retarded etc., even if the research is beneficial is to the patients- only detailed information pertaining to research can be offered
How ethical or unethical do you think this would be and why?
Persuasion is considered unethical when
- it is done at the expense of others and without their knowledge/consent
- Deceptive, manipulative and coercive techniques are used
- Research is done for some personal gains rather than for the societal gain
The intent of persuasion does matter. Persuasion in certain cases like clinical research becomes necessary for the sake of participants as well as larger audience whereas in some cases of social research it is considered unethical.
So deciding whether it is unethical depends on
- the circumstances
- Intent of the researcher
- Universal principles- like right to privacy
- Whether the basic principles of persuasion are followed