Nervous System

Introduction

Skeletal muscle is among the significant muscles in the body. This type of muscle is a striated muscle tissue that operates as a volunteer in the somatic nervous system. In many cases, skeletal muscles are usually attached to bones by tendons, which are collagen fibers (Levenberg et al, 2005)

Skeletal muscle is best known for its ability to enhance movement by contraction. It also stops the movement by resisting gravity in order to maintain posture. The skeletal muscle also controls the functioning of the internal organs. Every skeletal muscle consists of a variety of integrated cells and tissues such as the skeletal muscle fibers, nerve fibers, blood cells, and connective tissues. It has three overlapping layers of connective tissue that is known as Mysia. This tissue enclose the muscle and its major role is providing structure to the muscle as well as compartmentalize the fibers in the muscle. Epimysium, a shield of an irregular thick tissue, wraps the skeletal muscle. The role of the epimysium is to enhance the contraction of the muscle while keeping its structure. The shield also ensures that the muscles move independently without interruption from other muscles.

Muscle fatigue is defined as the decrease in the ability a muscle to bring about force (Allen et al, 2008). It results in muscles feeling weak and tired. Muscle fatigue can be caused by rough exercise, old age, sleep deprivation as well as medical conditions such as depression, pregnancy, cerebral palsy, and chemotherapy, HIV, and stroke. The initial signs and symptoms of muscle fatigue are feeling weak and tired in the muscle. Other symptoms include muscle crump, shortness in breath, and pain in the muscles, muscle twitching, and trembling.

A chemical synapse that connects a muscle fiber to a motor neuron is called a neuromuscular junction. It is also known as a myoneural junction. The neuromuscular junction is made up of a presynaptic terminal, a postsynaptic cell, and a synaptic. In this case, the presynaptic terminal is defined as the axonal terminal that is found in a motor neuron. Synaptic vesicles present on the axonal terminals have neurotransmitters that are emitted after receiving a nerve impulse. The primary role of the neuromuscular junction is to allow a signal to be transmitted by the motor neuron to the muscle fiber, therefore, resulting in muscle contraction. The postsynaptic cell is the skeletal muscle fiber which enables the formation of the synapse by the motor neurons. The synaptic is the gap that separates the presynaptic ending and the postsynaptic membrane. It is a tiny space that enables the neurotransmitters to dissolve and move to the other side of the neuromuscular junction. It is rich in enzymes that digest the excess neurotransmitters. The sarcolemma of the skeletal muscles that are found at the neuromuscular junction has many folds referred to as postjunctional folds. The folds increase the surface area for the action of the neurotransmitter. The folds also contain acetylcholine receptors, which enhance the diffusion of potassium and sodium ions by opening the cation channels.

The contraction cycle of the skeletal muscle is initiated by the calcium ions as they enter into the cell forming actin-myosin bridges. Asa result, the skeletal muscle contracts. The acetylcholine released into the cleft does not survive for long. As soon as it enters the synaptic cleft, the acetylcholinesterase metabolizes it, and the choline formed gets absorbed by the presynaptic neurons. The resultant of all these activities is the elimination of any possible effect; therefore, the muscle stops contracting.

Electromyography is the process of measuring the electrical activity of the muscle response to a nerve’s stimulation of the muscle. This particular test aids in the detection of neuromuscular abnormalities. The test involves small needles being inserted into the muscle through the skin, and then the action of the muscle is displayed on a screen through those small needles(the electrodes). The test shows the activity of the muscles.

Antibodies are Y-shaped proteins that are released into the body by the immune system to fight harmful intruders in the body. The immune system generate antibodies whenever an antigen gets into the body. Antigens are the foreign substance that triggers the production of the antibodies by the immune system. Antigens cause allergies, infections and diseases.

An Electromyography procedure shows that the patient was suffering from minor fatigue. Due to the available tumor in the patient’s thyroid, there arises a need to test for thyroid cancer. The possible cause of the patient’s sickness is the availability of chlorine in the swimming pool that got absorbed into the body system, therefore, making the body release more antibodies. “The activity that involves any of halogens is in the environment is directly proportional to the atomic weight of that particular halogen. The translation of this is any halogen can displace the element with a higher atomic weight, but cannot displace an element with a lower atomic weight,” J.C. Jarvis.

Administration of supplements rich in iodine is recommended to the patient for long-term treatment and wellbeing. In a case where no medical treatment was provided, the life of the patient may be at risk of getting thyroid cancer, which is hard to treat at a late stage.

Conclusion

Muscle fatigue may be caused by infection or disease due to the penetration of the antibodies into the body through the skin. As a result, the body may feel weak and tired. In this case, the Electromyography process is necessary in order to measure electrical activity or muscle response. The results of the test may help to rule out the possible cause of the patient’s ailment.

References:

Levenberg, S., Rouwkema, J., Macdonald, M., Garfein, E. S., Kohane, D. S., Darland, D. C., …

 

& Langer, R. (2005). Engineering vascularized skeletal muscle tissue. Nature biotechnology, 23(7), 879-884.

 

Allen, D. G., Lamb, G. D., & Westerblad, H. (2008). Skeletal muscle fatigue: cellular

 

mechanisms. Physiological reviews, 88(1), 287-332.

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