How has the composition of the bench changed over the past several deca

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The U.S. supreme court may be deemed the crown jewel of the federal Judiciary, but it has workhorses, including the U.S. district courts and courts of appeals. Additionally, the paper explores the many changes that have occurred since the founding of this great nation as far as the judicial system is concerned.

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Since the founding of this great nation, the federal judicial system was primarily comprised of the white and male despite the African American comprising 40% of the U.S. population Bowie (Bowie, Songer, & Szmer, 2014; Neubauer, & Fradella, 2018). From the 18th century until the 20th century in the 1960s, the white male judges consisting of 99% of the federal judicial system. Until 1934, women were not allowed to be appointed to an Article III judgeship under the leadership of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Until 1949 the African Americans were not allowed to be on the benches when the president Harry S. Truman took over (Bowie, Songer, & Szmer, 2014; Neubauer, & Fradella, 2018). On the supreme court bench, gender and racial diversity were even considered until 1967, when the first African American justice Thurgood Marshall took over. The first female justice Deborah A. Batts sat on the supreme court bench in 1981(Bowie, Songer, & Szmer, 2014). In 1994 the first LGBTQ federal judge was appointed.

The benches’ composition can once again be examined by considering the federal judiciary diversity that can be measured by looking at active and sitting judges (Bowie, Songer, & Szmer, 2014; Neubauer, & Fradella, 2018). All the judicial diversity has gradually improved in President Bill Clinton, Jimmy Carter, and Barack Obama; however, the federal courts are highly dominated by whites and males (Bowie, Songer, & Szmer, 2014; Neubauer, & Fradella, 2018). In this context, 80 percent of the federal sitting judges were white as of 2019 august, while 73 percent were female August together, white males comprise 60 percent of federal courts’ sitting judges (Neubauer, & Fradella, 2018; Bowie, Songer, & Szmer, 2014). People of color who comprise the women and males comprise the 20 judges while the LGBTQ comprises only 1 percent.

Although the president who served in the united states of America put their efforts into appointing federal judges from minority groups, president Cater became the first president to make a diversifying appointment in the federal courts (Bowie, Songer, & Szmer, 2014; Neubauer, & Fradella, 2018). Before him, 90% of the court’s administration’s appointee were all whites (Bowie, Songer, & Szmer, 2014). From the carters’ appointment, 37 judicial appointees were black American, which was 3times more than any other judicial appointment from the precedent administration.

The trumps judicial appointee, as of August 2019, 78% were males, and 86 percent were whites (Bowie, Songer, & Szmer, 2014). Altogether 67 % of Trump’s appointees in the benches are white males, and only 21.5 of his appointees are women (Bowie, Songer, & Szmer, 2014). As of August, five African Americans and Hispanics were appointed judges.

In conclusion, looking at the judicial appointment diversity, there is a change that is needed as soon as possible. Examining the distribution of the federal court’s appointees, the minority group should be considered more. The U.S. is a multiethnic state, so the benches should be showing ethnic diversity.


Bowie, J. B., Songer, D. R., & Szmer, J. (2014). The view from the bench and chambers: Examining judicial process and decision making on the U.S. Courts of Appeals. University of Virginia Press.

Brouard, S., & Hönnige, C. (2017). Constitutional courts as veto players: Lessons from the United States, France, and Germany. European Journal of Political Research, 56(3), 529-552.

Neubauer, D. W., & Fradella, H. F. (2018). America’s courts and the criminal justice system. Cengage Learning.

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