Argumentative Essay( Should we band garbage bags)

I for band garbage bags, i should have 3 argument why

Plastic bags are harmful to wildlife and marine life, Plastic bags are expensive and hard to clean or remove from the environment , Plastic bags are harmful to human health

Structuring a Persuasive Essay

The formula below for organizing a persuasive essay may be one with which you are familiar. It will present a convincing argument to your reader because your discussion is well rounded and thorough, and you leave your audience with your point of view at the end. Remember to consider each of these components in this formula section instead of paragraphs because you will probably want to discuss multiple ideas backing up your point of view to make it more convincing.

When writing a persuasive essay, it is best to begin with the most important point because it immediately captivates your readers and compels them to continue reading. For example, if you were supporting your thesis that homework is detrimental to the education of high school students, you would want to present your most convincing argument first, and then move on to the less important points for your case.

Some key transitional words you should use with this method of organization are: most importantly, almost as importantly, just as importantly, and finally.

The Formula You will need to come up with objection points, but you will also need to think of direct rebuttals to each of those ideas. Remember to consult your outline as you are writing because you may need to double-check that you have countered each of the possible opposing ideas you presented.


Attention getter: entry sentence

Thesis (showing the criteria for the argument – usually three )


Signposts ( the structure your argument will follow: 1. Pros; 2.

Cons; 3. Pros)

Thesis statement example: Paying division one college athletes is the only fair course of action for the NCAA to take because _______(criteria 1)___________________, ________(criteria 2)___________________, and ________(criteria 3)_______________.

Body Paragraphs 2-4: (Multiple) Ideas in Support of Claim

Give a topic sentence introducing the point (see thesis)

Give explanations + evidence on first point

Make concluding statement summarizing point discussion (possibly transitioning to next supporting idea)

Repeat with multiple ideas in separate paragraphs

Body Paragraph 5: Counterclaims

Give topic sentence explaining this paragraph will be opposing points of view to

Present general summary of some opposing ideas

Present some generalized evidence

Provide brief concluding sentence for paragraph—transitioning into next rebuttal paragraph

Body Paragraph 6: Response to Opposing Views (Rebuttal)

Give topic sentence explaining this paragraph/section connects to or expands on previous paragraph

[may recognize validity of some of points] then need to present how your ideas are stronger

Present evidence directly countering/refuting ideas mentioned in previous section

Give concluding statement summarizing the countering arguments


Restate your thesis

Summarize your discussion points

Leave the reader with a strong impression; do not waiver here

May provide a “call for action” or vocalize another course of action

Over the next weeks, you will be writing an Argumentative Essay. In an Argumentative Essay, the writer:

Presents an issue.

Takes a position on the issue.

Develops an argument to convince the reader that this position is correct.

Double spaced

3-4 pages

Works cited page

Argumentative essays often require research: you must collect evidence that relates to the topic, such as facts, statistics, and quotations from expert sources.

Your goal is to convince your readers that your opinion about an issue (your thesis statement) is valid and important. To accomplish this goal, your essay must state your opinion about the issue clearly. Your introduction should:

Grab your readers’ attention with a hook.

Clearly introduce and define your topic.

Give any necessary background information.

Make a claim about the issue (thesis statement) this presents a strong argument and clearly indicates your purpose for writing.

Then you must persuade the readers that this position is right. Your body paragraphs should:

Clearly present the main arguments that support your thesis statement.

Include facts, evidence, and examples that support each main argument.

You should include at least one reference to an outside source. This could be a direct quote, a paraphrase, a summary, or a reference to a specific research study.

Present one or more counterarguments to show that you have considered opposing opinions.

Your essay needs to be balanced to show that you understand the issue completely. One way to do this is to include an opposing viewpoint, or counterargument. Even though you are arguing one side of an issue, you must think about what someone on the other side of the issue would argue.

Discussing only your opinion makes your essay sound biased, and your readers may not be convinced of your viewpoint.

Acknowledge counterargument(s) where appropriate and respond to them with refutations.

After giving your opponent’s point of view, you offer a refutation. This means that you refute the other point of view, or show how it is wrong.

Finally, your conclusion should summarize all the arguments you have stated. It may also give a warning, a prediction, or a suggestion about what should happen next.

Steps in the process:

Choose a topic

Brainstorm ideas

Make a writing plan

Write a first draft (due 10/30)

Revise and write a second/final draft Editing and polishing peer review (in class on 11/6)

Self-Assessment Checklist

Does my introduction include:

___ A hook

___ The topic

___ Background information

___ A strong thesis statement

Do my body paragraphs include:

___ A clear presentation of the main arguments (that support my thesis statement)

___ Facts, evidence, or examples to support each argument

___ At least one reference to an outside source

___ At least one counterargument and refutation

___ Transitions so that my ideas flow together in a logical order

Does my conclusion include:

___ Summarize my arguments

___ Remind my readers why they should agree with my position

___ Give my readers something to think about

Grading Rubric


4 – Exceeds Expectations

3 – Meets Expectations

2 – Needs Improvement

1 – Inadequate

Understanding of Audience

Demonstrates an understanding of the target audience. Uses appropriate vocabulary and language. Anticipates probable questions and addresses these concerns with evidence.

Demonstrates a general understanding of audience and uses mostly appropriate vocabulary and language structures.

Demonstrates a limited understanding of audience, and generally uses appropriate, if simple, vocabulary and language.

Not clear which audience is intended for this writing.

Hook / Introduction

Introductory paragraph begins with a statement that both grabs the attention of the reader and is appropriate to the audience.

Introductory paragraph begins with a statement that attempts to grab the attention of the reader, but is incomplete in some sense, or may not be appropriate to the audience.

Introductory paragraph begins with a statement that might be construed as an attention getter, but is not clear.

Introductory paragraph does not contain a hook or attention grabber.

Theses / Main Idea Structuring

Introductory paragraph contains a clear thesis of main idea with clear suggestions as to how the body of the essay will support this thesis.

Introductory paragraph contains a clear thesis. However, the following support sentences are not necessarily, or only vaguely connected to the body paragraphs.

Introductory paragraph contains a statement that may be construed as a thesis or main idea. However, there is little structural support in the following sentences.

Introductory paragraph contains no clear thesis statement or main idea.

Body / Evidence and Examples

Body paragraphs provide clear evidence and ample examples supporting thesis statement.

Body paragraphs provide clear connections to thesis statement, but may be need more examples or concrete evidence.

Body paragraphs are vaguely on topic, but lack clear connections, evidence and examples of thesis or main idea.

Body paragraphs are unrelated, or marginally connected to essay topic. Evidence is weak or nonexistent.

Closing Paragraph / Conclusion

Closing paragraph provides a clear conclusion successfully stating the author’s position, as well as containing an effective restatement of the main idea or thesis of the essay.

Closing paragraph concludes essay in satisfactory manner. However, author’s position and/or an effective restatement of main idea or thesis may be lacking.

Conclusion is weak and at times confusing in terms of author’s position with little reference to main idea or thesis.

Conclusion is nonexistent with little or no reference to proceeding paragraphs or author’s position.

Sentence Structure

All sentences are well constructed with very few minor mistakes. Complex sentence structures are used effectively.

Most sentences are well constructed with a number of mistakes. Some attempts at complex sentence structure are successful.

Some sentences are well constructed, while others contain serious errors. Use of complex sentence structure is limited.

Very few sentences are well constructed, or sentence structures are all very simple.

Linking Language

Linking language is used correctly and often.

Linking language is used. However, mistakes in exact phrasing or usage of linking language is evident.

Linking language is seldom used.

Linking language is almost never or never used.

Grammar and Spelling

Writing includes no or only very few minor errors in grammar, spelling.

Writing includes a relatively small number of errors in grammar, spelling and punctuation. However, reader’s understanding is not impeded by these errors.

Writing includes a number of errors in grammar, spelling and punctuation which, at times, hinders reader’s understanding.

Writing includes numerous errors in grammar, spelling and punctuation which makes reader’s understanding difficult.

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