biology

BIO 115 NUMBER 5 TAKE HOME EXAM Cellular metabolism
1. 1 calorie = _______________ joules? Which one of these units is used in the metric system?
2. Define cellular metabolism:
3. Fill in this chart of metabolic terms/phenomena using the terms given
-gives off energy, builds large molecules, endergonic, breaks apart large molecules, uses energy, exergonic
OXIDATIVE REDUCTIVE
4. This is a molecule of glucose, where in the molecule is its energy stored?
5. In metabolism, what is energetic coupling?
6. What is the energetic advantage of having reactions that are coupled?
7. Draw an ATP molecule and label the adenosine, the ribose sugar and the 3 phosphate groups

8. What role does ADP and ATP play in the typical cell?
9. Where in the ATP molecule is its metabolic energy stored?
10. How does ATP ‘power’ a reaction?
Cellular respiration
11. What is the difference between cellular respiration and cellular metabolism?
12. This is a summary of cellular respiration:
-describe what is happening here
-also, chemical energy begins locked up in the glucose molecule. List the places the energy travels as it moves through the process. Also, the energy is ultimately use for what purpose?

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13. This is a simplified diagram of glucose respiration:
-describe in your own words what is happening.
-the energy of this metabolic process begins in glucose – trace the energy’s path of release through the process
14. Notice that 1/2 through the respiratory process, energy carriers accept and transfer the energy. In what form is this energy that the energy carriers accept and transfer.
15. Also, the energy carriers transfer the energy from point A to point B. What are these 2 points?
16. Are these energy carriers in their oxidized form or reduced form?
-NADH –
-FADH2 – -NAD – -FADH –

Carbohydrate respiration
17. Below is a summary of glucose respiration:
18. Glucose is first transported into the cytoplasm and first goes through the glycolysis pathway:
-how many carbon atoms are in glucose?
-glucose is converted to _________________ by glycolysis. This resulting molecule(s) have ______ carbons.
-so what does the term glycolysis mean and why is it appropriately named?
19. a. After glycolysis, the resultant 3-carbon pyruvic acid is transported into the mitochondrial matrix. It is converted to ______________________ by the transition reaction.
b. however, under certain conditions, and in mammalian cells, pyruvic acid is converted to______________ under low oxygen conditions.
c. alternatively, in yeast cells, pyruvic acid is converted to _____________ under anaerobic conditions
20. When oxygen is abundant, the product from 19a. above enters into the Citric Acid Cycle (Kreb’s Cycle). Where in the cell does the Citric Acid Cycle occur?

21. Name 3 molecules that are produced by and released from the Citric Acid Cycle. _______________ this one carries electrons
_______________ this one also carries electrons
_______________ This one is a gas
22. Describe the electron transport chain: -its components
-its location
-how it works
-how it produces a concentration gradient -what that concentration gradient is used for
23. So, at the end of all of this, how is ATP made?
cell division
24. Describe/illustrate the cell cycle. Describe what happens during each phase of this cycle. Also illustrate how mitosis and its phases, along with cytokinesis, fits into the larger cycle.

25. Name the phase of these dividing cells:
__________________
________________
______________
________________
_______________
________________
______________
________________

26. What is the diploid number of the cell (going through mitosis) below?
27. If a cell had a diploid number of 10 chromosomes and was going through MITOSIS, how many chromatids in total would exist in the cell during:
-prophase -metaphase
-in the daughter cells
28. What is the purpose of MITOSIS in an organism?
29. If a cell had a diploid number of 10 chromosomes and was going through MEIOSIS, how many chromatids in total would exist in the cell during:
-a prophase I cell -a metaphase I cell -a prophase II cell -in a daughter cell
30. What is the purpose of MEIOSIS in an organism?
31. What is crossing over and when in a cell cycle does it occur?
32. What are homologous chromosomes?
33. What is separated by MEIOSIS I?
34. What is separated by MEIOSIS II?

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