The Decision to Drop Bomb

5 paragraphs argument or analysis of the decision to drop atomic bombs during WW2. Include the reading (or the alternative readings provided) and 2 other sources: total 3 sources in your response.

Read the first ten pages of the chapter The Decision to Drop the Bomb from the class text “After the Fact.” If you still do not have the class text you can consult these websites that were mentioned in the introduction: The posted Youtubes may also be used in your homework

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https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/us-history
https://www.history.com/news/hiroshima-nagasaki-bombing-wwii-cold-war
https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/the-manhattan-project
You must read all of the above IF YOU DO NOT HAVE THE BOOK.
Use this Reading Guide for to the Decision to Drop the the Bomb. Even though it applies to the chapter, you can use questions 5, 6, 7 8 that can apply to the other readings as well. Answer in paragraph form.

The following reading guide is for the book chapter but use the questions to answer

Read pages 1-10 Follow this guide.

Select the 4 questions from within the guide to answer .

Make sure you answer in paragraph form, not as answered questions, but as a “mini-essay” You must integrate two sources ans a main reading. (3 sources total).

** If the questions seem too complicated then just go back to basic argument questions and review the youtubes in the Introduction

Was dropping the bombs necessary?

Major Points:

The Manhattan project was started under Roosevelt who had discussed with Churchill its use only as an extreme measure.
The next president, Truman, who took oath after FDR died in office, had no knowledge of the secret project.
Stimson urged the President that the bomb will end the war in the South Pacific; he greatly influenced Truman.
Stimson also supported the idea of intimidating the Soviet Union.
Questions:

1. Organized well-funded science– What does this process mean and how was it successful in this case?

2. Models of Decision Making- The text states: “To a large extent, what Truman decided or did not decide depended on what he learned from those organizations. (a pyramid of advisers, agencies, bureaus, offices, and committees, all going about their own business) To that extent also, the shorthand “Truman dropped the bomb…” conceals as much as it reveals.” What does this statement mean?

3. The authors are saying that while the president is responsible for the final decision, the decision is a complex process that involves not just the closest advisors, but the help of the actual organizational structure of the government. What or who influenced his decision?

4. Rational Actor Model- The premise is that leaders make the most rational decisions. But then the authors present a contrary view: “The available evidence does support that conclusion. The Manhattan Project owed its beginnings to several physicists, primarily refugees from fascist Germany and Italy, who feared that recent atomic research would allow the Nazis to develop a weapon of unparalleled destructive force.” But then the authors say, “Thus the rational actor model explains adequately the progression of events that brought about the bomb’s development: (1) physicists saw the potential of nuclear fission and warned the president; (2) Roosevelt ordered a speed-up in research; (3) scientific breakthroughs led to greater certainty of eventual success, causing the president to give bomb research top priority; (4) the race with Germany, and then Japanese resistance in the Far East, encouraged scientists to push toward success.”

Does this seem like a contradiction? Or– was it logical (and not emotional or irrational) to drop two bombs? Would one have been enough? Or would giving japan more time to figure out how to surrender, or let their Emperor remain have been another solution? Explain.

5. For the answer, you have to read further. Finally, the authors ask:

Did the military situation in the summer of 1945 justify launching the attacks without warning Japan? (Some argue that Japan was warned but that is a debatable point as to specifically whether the warning was strong enough or explicit). Could a nonmilitary demonstration of the bomb’s power have persuaded the Japanese to surrender without immense loss of life? Why drop a second bomb on Japan so soon after the first? And finally, who did the United States really want to shock with its atomic might——Japan or the Soviet Union?”

6. We have now reached the point of the chapter— or at one major point: what was the true purpose of the decision to drop two bombs on Japan?

The following paragraphs argue on the “real” reasons for dropping the bombs. Pay attention to Alperovitz’s argument. This is the heart of reasons for the bombing that seem “rational” but at the same time are not reasons that such use is to defeat Japan. (so then is that rational?)

7. Read to page 8 for this concluding argument. “Alperovitz’s conclusion is sobering. If ending the war had been Truman’s onlygoal, the rational response would have been to give Japan the extra few days or weeks to negotiate a surrender. There would have been no need to drop the bomb. But of course it was dropped. Therefore (so the logic goes) the president’s primary goal must have been to intimidate the Soviets.” So now what are your thoughts? Have the author’s laid out a convincing argument?

8. “This was a possibility that Alperovitz understandably condemned, for it would have meant that Truman had wantonly incinerated hundreds of thousands of Japanese for reasons that had nothing to do with the war itself.” That’s one powerful reason. Then read the rest of paragraphs. What are the other persuasive reasons the authors of the chapter deemed that the decision to drop the bomb was not rational? Do you agree or disagree?

9. Next follow the alternate set of motivations that involve the military’s decision-making. Also another ‘Rational Actor” model:What did the committee decide – read the first paragraph. Were their reasons valid in your opinion? Which side of the argument are you on?

Write your argument for or against the decision to drop the bomb and add in two (2) additional sources to support your argument– 3 sources total. if you are undecided analyze both sides of the argument and incorporate two additional sources.in addition to the reading.

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