Instructions: Create a Word document and answer the following questions. Upload your completed document to the link marked Midterm on the Week 7 tab of Blackboard.
Part I (75 points)
For the first part of the exam, please use the research data bases to locate 5 articles about one of the following topics:
Current Innovations in Robotics
Best Methods to Train Employees in Cross-Cultural Issues
Global Marketing Success Stories
Artificial Intelligence in Decision Making
Using Big Data in Human Resources
Be sure to include 3 scholarly articles and 2 sources from popular press (magazine, newspaper, blogs, video, etc.). Format the list as you would for an APA style Reference list. You may use Academic Writer or follow style guides available on line.
Each entry is worth 15 points and will be graded for accurate APA style formation.
Part II (75 points)
Next, read the following article. Summarize/Paraphrase and write a summary of the article. To write the summary, you must paraphrase the words used by the writer of the article so that you could use your summary in a paper. You are not simply paraphrasing every sentence, but you are also condensing the main ideas so that you can report them in a review of the literature.
This section will be scored based on the student’s ability to produce a summary of the article using their own words (60%) and the strength of English language usage with which they paraphrase the author’s words (40%). In other words, the paraphrase should be done in clear and correct English language usage.
Nearly 200 of world’s biggest food suppliers pledge to halve food waste by 2030
By Emily Heil, Washington Post
Nearly 200 food suppliers, including some of the largest producers in the world, have pledged to reduce their food waste by half before 2030.
The companies, who make such products as Rice Krispies cereal, Hellmann’s mayonnaise and Spam, have joined the 10x20x30 initiative, a global effort to reduce the amount of food that is discarded every year, the World Resources Institute, which supports the program, announced on September 23. The big food makers — a list that includes giants Unilever, PepsiCo and Nestle Global — join some of the world’s largest food retailers, who in 2019, signed onto the campaign.
The companies will make annual reports about their food loss and waste and will be encouraged to share the information on the Food Waste Atlas, a searchable website, an institute representative says, but how they meet their targets will vary.
Deanna Bratter, the head of sustainable development for Danone North America, whose portfolio includes Dannon and Activia yogurts and Silk creamers, says her company is looking at options. At the low-sugar line Two Good, she says, the effort might entail using surplus produce in special “limited batch” flavors. Elsewhere, she says, the company is looking for ways to turn what would have been waste into animal food or compost.
“Food waste has always been a pain point for the industry,” she says.
The idea behind 10x20x30 was to get 10 major retailers — a group that wound up including Walmart, Kroger and the parent of Giant Foods — to make a similar pledge, and then for each to enlist 20 of their suppliers to commit, too, in the hopes of meeting a goal set at the 2015 United Nations General Assembly to halve the world’s food waste.
According to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, about 30 percent of the world’s food is unharvested or thrown away at various points in the supply chain. And all that loss is a big contributor to climate change, accounting for 8 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. An oft-cited analogy posits that if food waste constituted its own country, it would trail only the United States and China in its contributions to global warming.
Food manufacturers are only part of the equation. The majority of food waste — about 80 percent of it — happens in homes and in consumer-facing businesses, such as grocery stores and restaurants, according to a report by the nonprofit ReFED. Food manufacturers account for 2 percent of the problem, while consumers are responsible for 43 percent, the report says.
Brian Roe, a professor in the department of agricultural, environmental and development economics at Ohio State University, says producers can do more — not just to eliminate food waste in their own operations but to ultimately help keep consumers from pitching so much, too. “There may be systems that help the consumer to waste less food so it’s not just a matter of consumers acting badly,” he says. Those might include the right packaging and labeling, better instructions or smaller portion sizes, he notes.
Roe says the willingness of big manufacturers to join such an initiative is encouraging, but he’s hoping that collaborations will lead to more transparency and data sharing. That way, companies will know what’s working and what’s not. Now, he says, it might not be clear that an action taken at one step on the supply chain actually keeps more food out of landfills at the end.
For example, if a farmer has a bumper crop of tomatoes one year, it might seem like a good thing to save them. But, Roe says, it might not be such a good idea if the tomatoes get further along the supply chain — where they may have been transported and used other resources along the way — and still wind up getting thrown away. “Any data to help connect the dots can help develop a systems-level view of the problem,” he says.
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